Mootness Denied: Appellate Victory for Vichy Springs in Environmental Battle Over Completed Gun Range Project

Vichy Springs Resort, Inc. v. City of Ukiah
(Case No. A165345) (2024 WL 1340842)

The central issue in this case revolves around the mootness doctrine, which requires that a case be dismissed as moot if no effective relief can be granted because the actual controversy has ceased to exist due to the passage of time or a change in circumstances. In this case, the appellate court determined that the litigation was not moot, as there remained viable corrective measures and modifications that could potentially mitigate the project’s environmental impact, thereby providing a tangible remedy.

Factual Background

Vichy Springs Resort, Inc. v. City of Ukiah involves a legal dispute between Vichy Springs Resort, Inc. (Vichy) and the City of Ukiah and the County of Mendocino, as well as the Ukiah Rifle and Pistol Club, Inc. (Club). The core of the dispute revolved around the Club’s operation of a shooting range on land leased from the City, which is located in an unincorporated area of the County. Vichy, a nearby mineral springs resort and spa, raised concerns about the environmental impacts of the Club’s project to demolish its existing main shooting range and construct a new one. These concerns included potential lead contamination and increased noise and traffic.

Vichy sued both the City and the County, alleging they failed to comply with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and their respective General Plans and local ordinances in relation to the Club’s project. The trial court entered judgment in favor of the City and the County after sustaining without leave to amend demurrers to Vichy’s causes of action. Vichy filed the appeal that culminated in this decision.

Court of Appeal Outcome

On appeal, the court found that the trial court erred in several respects. The court concluded Vichy’s petition sufficiently alleged that both the City and the County violated CEQA and that the County abused its discretion in determining it had no regulatory authority over the Club’s project. Therefore, the court reversed the trial court’s judgment and remanded the case for further proceedings.

Faced with arguments that the litigation was moot due to the Club’s completion of its project, the court determined that Vichy’s CEQA claims remained viable. This decision was based on Vichy proposing a range of modifications and corrective measures that could serve as mitigation strategies to reduce or eliminate the significant environmental impacts of the completed project.

Court of Appeal Analysis


In the published portion of the decision, the court examined the arguments of mootness put forward by the Club and the City. The Club argued that since the project had been completed before the matter came to court, the court was incapable of providing any meaningful remedy, rendering the CEQA claim moot. However, the court noted that a case is considered moot only if the court’s decision cannot result in any practical or effective relief for the parties. The court disagreed with the Club’s view, noting that even though the project was finished, there were still opportunities to implement mitigation strategies to lessen or negate the project’s significant environmental effects, thereby keeping the claim relevant. Vichy’s petition outlined various modifications and remedial actions that could be taken, including the possibility of revoking the project’s permit and certificate of occupancy by the City, pending a comprehensive CEQA review by the County.

The court was also not persuaded by the Club’s argument that they should find the claims moot because Vichy did not seek a preliminary injunction staying construction during the pendency of the litigation. Of course, while it would have been advantageous for Vichy to seek to halt the progress of the project, the court noted there was no legal basis to render Vichy’s claim moot for not seeking such an injunction.

The County’s Jurisdiction  

Also in the published portion of the opinion was discussion regarding the County’s determination that the project was in the City’s sole jurisdiction. Vichy filed complaints with the County in January and November 2017, accusing the Club of beginning construction without the requisite County permits or CEQA compliance. The County dismissed these complaints, erroneously attributing jurisdiction solely to the City and claiming immunity under certain Government Code sections.

In response, Vichy’s petition challenged the County’s handling of the Club’s project under CEQA, alleging the County should have required the Club to obtain a discretionary use permit, which would have necessitated a CEQA review. Vichy specifically asserted the County improperly circumvented its CEQA obligations by misinterpreting its regulatory responsibilities. Vichy argued that the project’s nature and requirements under County authority were sufficient for CEQA consideration. Furthermore, the County’s assertion that a CEQA violation claim was not ripe without its project approval was countered by Vichy’s argument that the County’s incorrect belief in its lack of regulatory authority led to a failure to conduct an environmental review, in direct conflict with CEQA’s objectives. The court agreed that the County’s non-action and incorrect assumption of its regulatory powers resulted in a violation of CEQA mandates.

City’s Violations of CEQA /Writ of Mandate/ Declaratory Relief

In the unpublished section of the court’s opinion, the court identified CEQA violations by the City for prematurely issuing a building permit, deeming the project exempt without County approvals, and misclassifying the project’s nature, undermining CEQA guidelines. The City’s exemptions were challenged by Vichy, highlighting the project’s expansion. The court acknowledged and accepted Vichy’s contention that the project’s supposed ministerial status warranted discretionary review due to the City’s proprietary role and potential conditions on the project. The necessity of a discretionary County use permit, dismissed by the City and Club under flawed immunity interpretations, was also affirmed by the court.

Also included in the unpublished portion of the opinion is the court’s discussion of the writ of mandate sought by Vichy against the City[1] and Vichy’s request for declaratory relief. [2]


In summary, the court’s decision underscores the importance of local government entities’ compliance with CEQA and their regulatory responsibilities over projects that may have environmental impacts, while also highlighting the procedural nuances of litigating such disputes. This ruling relatedly illuminates the application of mootness principles in environmental litigation, showing that agencies and developers may still be accountable for environmental protection measures even after the physical completion of projects in question.

[1] Vichy’s challenge to the City over the building permit issuance, citing a lack of General Plan policy consideration, was dismissed by the trial court due to no specific Ukiah Code mandate requiring this and Vichy’s failure to counter the mootness issues associated with building permit issuance post-project completion. The court upheld the dismissal.

[2] The court was not persuaded by Vichy’s declaratory relief claim against the City, citing a Joint Powers Agreement (JPA) that clarified land use enforcement roles, thereby resolving any dispute. The court viewed the potential withdrawal from the JPA as too speculative for a legal dispute and found land use enforcement concerns not broadly significant. Arguments by Vichy regarding mootness due to possible future issues or public interest in environmental matters were dismissed. The court also denied Vichy’s amendment request, finding the speculative nature of future JPA outcomes insufficient for a genuine controversy.

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